Mughal Heritage

Mughal Heritage

Pakistan is a treasure-house of Muslim art and architecture. Lahore, the cultural capital of Pakistan, is situated along the bank of River Ravi . The city has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties like Ghaznavids (1021-1186 AD), Ghoris (1186-1202 AD) and Slaves (1206-1524 AD) before arrival of the Mughals. The city was conquered by Babur of Ferghana (situated in Uzbekistan), the founder of the Mughal dynasty (1524-1764 AD). All the important monuments like the Royal Fort, Badshahi Mosque, Wazir Khan''s Mosque and Tombs of Empror Jehangir, Asif Khan, Queen Noor Jehan and the Shalimar Gardens, Hiran Minar etc., were constructed during this period. On the other hand, the shrines, mosques and forts located in and around Multan and Bahawalpur are the master pieces of the early Muslim architecture.

Important Forts

Some important Forts are; Forts at Multan and Derawar (Bahawalpur), shrines of Shaikh Bahauddin Zakaria, Shah Rukan-e-Alam, Hazrat Shams Tabrez at Multan and Tomb of Bibi Jiwandi at Uchh Sharif near Bahawalpur. The tombs at Chaukundi, 27 km out of Karachi, the remains at Banbhore (64 km from Karachi) and the largest necropolis of the world with a million graves scattered over an area of 10 sq. km on Makli Hills near Thatta together with the Shahjehan Mosque of Thatta, are exquisite specimens of Muslim architecture, with stone carving and glazed tile decorations.

 


    Shahi Qila
  1. The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as the Shahi Qila, is a citadel in the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is located in the northwestern
    corner of the Walled City of Lahore in Iqbal Park, which is one of the largest urban parks in Pakistan

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  4. Masjid Wazir Khan

  1. Wazir Khan Mosque is situated in Old city near Dehli Gate. It was built by Wazir Kahn, Governor of Lahore, in the period of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. Wazir Khan's actual name was Hakim Shaikh Ilmuddin Ansari, but he was famous by former name. 
    Mosque was completed in Seven Years. Construction started in 1634 AD & completed in 1641. It is famous for its marvelous faience tile work. Outstanding architectural features are its octagonal four corner minarets 107 feet high decorated with mosaic tiles. 
    In the courtyard lies tomb of Syed Muhammad Ishaq. A saint from from Iran who settled in Lahore during Tughlak dynasty. Therefore tomb is older than mosque. Beautiful Pigeons flying in the courtyard area increase the beauty of mosque.

  2. Address: Inside Delhi Gate,Old Lahore.
    Directions: At the Eastern end of the old city, nearly 250 m inside Delhi Gate.

  3. Noor Jehan's Tomb, Lahore

  1. Noor Jahan (1577 - 1645) was the beloved / favorite Queen of Mughal Emperor Jahangir. She is buried at Shahdara, Lahore in a separate tomb built by herself near her husband's tomb. After the death of her husband, Jahangir, she spent most of her time in building his mausoleum & growing its garden (Dilkusha Garden). She has also constructed a tomb over her father's grave in Agra near Taj Mahal. Later she built her own tomb in Shahdara. The tomb is a single story structure with no domes or minarets. It has arched hallways. There are two graves in the centre of the tomb. One is the Queen Noor Jahan's and the other one of her daughter Ladli Begum. This tomb once had a marble cenotaph which she had built herself during her life time. During the Sikh rule, like all other Mughal buildings, this tomb was also mercilessly plundered and looted of its decorative tiles, marble and red stones. In the British period it remained Coal Store for Railway. The tomb once laid in ruins, but has been repaired & restored somehow, but couldn't be gathered back to its original state. Gardens surrounding her tomb & tomb of Jahangir were designed & personally laid out by herself. These gardens are attractive for both local & foreigner travelers.

  2. Address: Shahdara Town, Lahore
    Directions: Shahdara is on the North side of Lahore City. Noor Jahan's tomb is on the left side of Railway Line while Jahangir's tomb lies on the right side of Railway line. Take Shahdara Town Road.

  1. Jehangir´s Tomb, Lahore

  1. Tomb of Mughal Emperor Jahangir (1569 - 1627) is one of the masterpieces of the Mughal Architecture. Mausoleum is located at Shahdara, Lahore in the "Dilkusha Garden", situated on the North-West bank of River Ravi. This tomb is one of the most significant buildings of Mughal Period. It is a popular tourist attraction in Lahore. But, as it is outside the Lahore city, still many visitors usually skip this place to visit and thus lose an opportunity to see some of the great Mughal artwork and architecture. The tomb is a single story square building and is set in a luxuriant "Chaharbagh" (Square garden style). Each corner of the building is surmounted by an octagonal minaret which is structurally attached with main building. Now the area of whole Shahdara complex (Jahangir’s tomb, Akbari Serai and Asif Jah’s tomb) is 100 Acres, out of which area of Jahangir tomb is 59 Acres. The Jahangir’ tomb is approached through a spacious Serai, called Akbari Serai, which is a rectangular enclosure Noor Jahan, Jahangir's wife, laid this "Dilkusha Garden" - A garden that pleases heart . According to Jahangir's last wish he was buried in this garden at Shahdara. Janagir's son & successor Emperor Shahjahan started construction of his father’s tomb in 1627 and completed in 1637.

  2. Address: Shahdara town, Lahore.
    Directions: Situated on the North-West bank of River Ravi in Shahdara town. Could be reached through Shahdara Town Road & Jahangir Road. Near Shahdara Town UNDERPASS.

  1. Rohtas Fort or Qila Rohtas

  1. Rohtas Fort, or Qila Rohtas as the natives call it, is a garrison fort with great historical value. It is located in Pakistan’s most populated province, Punjab, on the GT road. It is at a distance of approximately 8 km from the city Dina in district Jhelum. The Afghan king, Farid Khan, more commonly known as Sher Shah Suri, had Todar Mal build this fort in the 16th century. Farid Khan is the founder of the Suri Empire. The circumference of the fort is 4 km. Its construction took as many as 8 years for completion. Meanwhile, Sher Shah Suri died on 22 May 1545 during the siege of Kalinjar Fort due to a fire erupted in result of a gunpowder explosion in his store room. The fort with its distinct architectural style, massiveness and historical significance is enlisted as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997 A.D.



  1. Mughal Garden Wah

  1. The Emperor Shah Jahan stayed at Wah while on his way to Kabul in 1639. He called his central construction department and ordered the reconstruction of the buildings. Ahmed Maamar Lahoree, a famous architect of those days, planned out the gardens, palaces and inns. The construction was performed under his supervision and took two years. The garden was made in the Mughal construction style. He made beautiful twelve door structures, canals and waterfalls. He made bathrooms having mixture of cold and hot water at the southern end of these twelve-door structures. The inner portion of the structures has been plastered. The walls of the smaller rooms have been decorated with flowers and petals. Shah Jahan stayed at the gardens on his trips to Kabul four times after their completion: in 1646, 1647, 1649, and 1654. Contemporaries of Shah Jahan, namely Abdul Hameed Lahoree and Muhammad Saleh Kamboh, declared the garden as a trustee of heaven and substitute for heaven's garden on earth. The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb stayed at the garden in July 1676. The garden was badly damaged in the era of the Durrani Empire (1747–1826) and later Sikh rule (1826-1849). After the annexation of the Punjab, the British Government handed over the gardens to Nawab Muhammad Hayat Khan, CSI, in 1865.

  2. Address: Wah Cantt, Taxila.
    Directions: The gardens are in the old village of Wah, close to the present garrison town of Wah, located 50 km north west of Islamabad on the main Grand Trunk Road.

  1. Hiran Minar (Tower of the Deer) in Sheikhupura

  1. Wazir Khan Mosque is situated in Old city near Dehli Gate. It was built by Wazir Kahn, Governor of Lahore, in the period of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. Wazir Khan's actual name was Hakim Shaikh Ilmuddin Ansari, but he was famous by former name. 
    Mosque was completed in Seven Years. Construction started in 1634 AD & completed in 1641. It is famous for its marvelous faience tile work. Outstanding architectural features are its octagonal four corner minarets 107 feet high decorated with mosaic tiles. 
    In the courtyard lies tomb of Syed Muhammad Ishaq. A saint from from Iran who settled in Lahore during Tughlak dynasty. Therefore tomb is older than mosque. Beautiful Pigeons flying in the courtyard area increase the beauty of mosque.